How to Speak by Patrick Winston
Ability to communicate
“We are storytelling animals”
Students shouldn’t go out without the ability to communicate for success in life depends on
- ability to speak
- ability to write
- quality of ideas
in that order
Quality of communication depends on
- Knowledge in this area
- practising what you know
- inherent talent
in that order: what matters most is what you know!
Rule on engagement
“Could you close that laptop please?” - humans have only one language processer.
How to start?
- Start with a Joke? I don’t recommend it!
People are adjusting in, and are not ready for a joke.
Start with an “empowerment promise”
- “At the end of this 60 minutes…….”
- Express how stuff you’re going to talk about is cool!
How do you inspire people?
- Everyone was inspired when they exhibited passion about what they are doing!
4 Samples of Heuristics
- Cycle around about the course of the talk
- 20% of the listeners may be fogged out at a given time. So repeating it in a cycle, 3 times can convey it to most of the audience
- Build a Fence around your idea, so that people don’t assume it to be something else
- Verbal Punctuation- to bring people back into the bus
- To bring prople who fogged out back into the loop, give an overview now an then (a status update of sorts)
- Ask a Question
- Wait for 7 seconds for an answer
- question shouldn’t be too obvious - people will be embarrassed to answer
- question shouldn’t be too hard - nobody will have anything to say
Build up your personal repertoire by observing your favourite speakers
Time and Place
- Time: do not coincide with food or sleep
- Well lit -‘It’s extremely difficult to see slides through closed eyelids’
- the place should be cased
- like you’re going to rob a bank
- the hall should be reasonably populated
- Right sized place that looks more than half full
Boards and Chalk
- Blackboards and Chalk is the tool for informing/teaching/lecturing; slides are for exposing
- Writing has a graphic quality
- speed with which you write on the board is approx. how fast people can grasp
- the board acts as a targer
- Hands in the pocket or back?
- Big NO
- Extraordinarily insulting in many cultures
- “looks like you are concealing a weapon”
- with the board, you have something to do with your hands, something to point at
- Hands in the pocket or back?
- They shouldn’t take attention away from the speaker
- Fewer words- when there’s too mush to read, “I wish you hadn’t talked much, it was very distracting”
- Get rid of the logos
- Get rid of the titles
- Get rid of the bullets and dots
- Laser pointers or any pointers for that matter take away attention and eye contact with the audience
- “You know what, we could all leave and he still wouldn’t know”
- Use arrows or marks in the slides instead of using a pointer
- Speaker should be close to the slides
- Talks are like plays!
- Use objects- remember Walter Lewin!
- The reason this is effective is “EMPATHETIC MIRRORING”
- Create events to make the talk memorable
- break a prop
- burn something
Preparing & Reviewing
- Preparing for Oral Exams
- Get friends who nothing about the topic to review
- “If you can’t make me cry, I won’t value as a friend anymore!”
- People who know what you’re talking about, like your faculty advisor hallucinated that there is stuff in the talk that actually isn’t
- Showcase a vision
- problem that people care about
- your novel approach
- Showcase that you’ve done stuff
- Listing the steps that need to be taken in order to achieve a solution to the above problem
- You don’t need to have done everything already
- “Here’s what needs to be done.”
- Enumerate your contributions
- All in 5 minutes
Getting Famous/ the recognition you deserve
- “Your ideas are like your children, you don’t want them to go into the world in rags”
- Let them get recognised fot their value
- to get remembered,
- make sure you have a SYMBOL associated with your presentation
- a SLOGAN
- a SURPRISE
- a SALIENT IDEA
- an idea that sticks out, not necessarily the most important
- the STORY of how you did it
How to Stop
FInal Slide: not to have
- Collaborators: Put that slide towards the beginning of the talk
- Questions: waste of real estate and opportunity to show who you are
- website: waste of opportunity, does nothing for you
- “THE END” :lol:
- Thank You: Did the people stay out of politeness?
Final Slide: to have
Tell a joke! People are ready and receptive for a joke!
- That way people think they had fun the whole time
Salute the audience:
- Speak good about the audience.
- Tell what you want them to do, etc.